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Computer and video games in the broader culture Computer games are still big business in South Korea. Developers there boast MMORPGs such as Lineage and Ragnarok Online with millions of subscribers and a third of the world's MMOG revenue. StarCraft gosu (expert players) are celebrities in a game that some have dared to call the country's national sport. The success of computer and online gaming there is usually credited to South Korea's push for broadband Internet connections in the home and earlier bans on Japanese products (these restrictions were removed by the late 1990s). Several websites and publications devoted solely to games have been created, including Nintendo Power, GamePro, Official Playstation Magazine, GameSpot, GameSpy, and IGN. Video gaming seems to be becoming a bigger part of popular culture. Many T-shirts are available that directly reference video games, such as one with a picture of an NES controller with the text 'Know Your Roots.' Also, video games have also become a major part in cross marketing platforms, such as in Pokemon or Yu-Gi-Oh, where a child can watch the television show, buy the trading cards, and play the various video games available.
Colocated hosting is generally chosen by people with server administration experience and those with more significant needs than which can be satisfied by cheap dedicated server hosting or shared hosting. This is usually the most expensive and least cost effective option if you are not colocating many servers. The Stored Program Concept The computer's ability to call in instructions and follow them is known as the "stored program concept." Instructions are copied into memory from a disk, tape or other source before any data can be processed. The computer is directed to start with the first instruction in the program. It copies the instruction from memory into its control unit circuit and matches it against its built-in set of instructions. If the instruction is valid, the processor carries it out. If not, the computer comes to an abnormal end (abend, crash). The computer executes instructions sequentially until it finds a GOTO instruction that tells it to go to a different place in the program. It can execute billions of instructions per second, using the same program logic on each new set of data brought in. Operations Overlap Input/output and processing are made to overlap. While one program is waiting for input from one user, the operating system (master control program) directs the computer to process data in another program. Large computers allow many input/output operations to occur simultaneously with processing. It can take hundreds of thousands of discrete machine steps to perform very routine tasks. Your computer could easily execute several million instructions to put a requested record on screen for you.
Computer Generations First-generation computers, starting with the UNIVAC I in 1951, used vacuum tubes, and their memories were made of thin tubes of liquid mercury and magnetic drums. Second-generation systems in the late 1950s replaced tubes with transistors and used magnetic cores for memories (IBM 1401, Honeywell 800). Size was reduced and reliability was significantly improved. Third-generation computers, beginning in the mid-1960s, used the first integrated circuits (IBM 360, CDC 6400) and the first operating systems and DBMSs. Online systems were widely developed, although most processing was still batch oriented using punch cards and magnetic tapes. Starting in the mid-1970s, the fourth generation brought us computers made entirely of chips. It spawned the microprocessor and personal computer. It introduced distributed processing and office automation. Query languages, report writers and spreadsheets put large numbers of people in touch with the computer for the first time. Even with the hundreds of millions of people using computers every day, we are still in the fourth generation. Some skill is still required to use the computer even if only to surf the Web and send e-mail. The fifth generation implies faster hardware and more sophisticated software that uses artificial intelligence (AI) routinely. Natural language recognition is a major component of the fifth generation. When you can have a reasonably intelligent conversation with the average computer, you will be in the fifth generation, perhaps in the 2015-2020 time frame.
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